Best Cities for Sports

 
 
 
 

by Amy Orr

Not everyone likes sports. Some people can take it or leave it, may know what their local team is doing in a vague way but not particularly care. They may even take in a game or two, as something to do. Others ignore it entirely. But many are sports fans, and among all the fans in the world, sports fans are often the most fierce, the most dedicated and the most put-upon. They also comprise the most sought-after demographic in commerce: 72% of 18-to-29-year-olds are sports fans and 76% of upper-income men are sports fans.

With the rich and the young behind it, it is no surprise that sports is one of the most lucrative and revered of American pastimes.

Being a sports fan can mean a lot more than simply following the nearest football team, or even following a winning team. Many cities offer a surprising array of facilities, minor leagues, participation and spectator opportunities for the sports enthusiast. Given the range of possibilities, the sports fan experience varies enormously depending on where you live and the amount of disposable income you have to spare.

Having a championship team to root for nearby is a part of the equation, but it's certainly not all that matters. As you'll see in our methodology below, we also awarded cities for their access to sports, both as a fan (i.e. number of teams are in the metro area) and a participant (i.e. number sports facilities for public use). See how the included figures have resulted in our best and worst cities in the U.S. for sports.

The Best Cities for Sports Enthusiasts

The cities included in this study are any with at least one minor league (or higher-ranked) team and at least one sports-related business or stadium. We have examined the numbers of teams in each city — professional and otherwise — the cost of attending games, number of stadiums, TV coverage of local sports, attendance figures and number of sports clubs. We then took all of these factors and combined them to determine the best and worst cities in the U.S. for the sports enthusiast.

Here are our top five cities along with how they fared in three highlights from our 25 data points: number of pro sports teams (comprising MLB, NFL, NBA, MLS and NHL as well as four women's leagues); average ticket price for four of those leagues (MLB majors and minors, NFL, NBA and MLS); and the number of fitness and sports recreation centers.

  • Pittsburgh, PA

    • Pro Teams: 7
    • Ticket Price: $60.85
    • Rec Centers: 293
  • Columbus, OH

    • Pro Teams: 4
    • Ticket Price: $55.40
    • Rec Centers: 202
  • Raleigh, NC

    • Pro Teams: 2
    • Ticket Price: $58.65
    • Rec Centers: 169
  • New York, NY

    • Pro Teams: 20
    • Ticket Price: $95.55
    • Rec Centers: 2,656*
  • Jacksonville, FL

    • Pro Teams: 2
    • Ticket Price: $51.61
    • Rec Centers: 127

*Includes rec centers in Newark and Jersey City, N.J.

The Rest of the Best

The five above were tops, but 205 other cities were under consideration. Here we include a data point that the average fan cares more about: number of championships won by the five major sports leagues (MLB, NFL, NBA, NHL and MLS).

Where did yours rank?

RankCityPro TeamsChampionshipsAverage Single Ticket Price)
1Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania715$60.85
2Columbus, Ohio41$55.40
3Raleigh, North Carolina21$58.65
4New York, New York2054$95.55
5Jacksonville, Florida20$51.61
6Richmond, Virginia00$58.65
7Salt Lake City, Utah41$55.48
8Oklahoma City, Oklahoma20$58.46
9Chicago, Illinois1529$80.23
10Tucson, Arizona00$58.65
11Boston, Massachusetts1036$83.00
12Madison, Wisconsin00$58.65
13Los Angeles, California1525$71.81
14Tulsa, Oklahoma00$58.65
15Baton Rouge, Louisiana00$58.65
16Colorado Springs, Colorado00$58.65
17Syracuse, New York01$58.65
18Dayton, Ohio00$58.65
19Boulder, Colorado00$58.65
19Columbia, South Carolina00$58.65
19Winston-Salem, North Carolina00$58.65
22Albuquerque, New Mexico00$58.65
23Green Bay, Wisconsin213$59.54
24Philadelphia, Pennsylvania1016$63.33
25Akron, Ohio11$58.65
26Knoxville, Tennessee00$58.65
27Detroit, Michigan622$47.16
28El Paso, Texas00$58.65
29Washington, District of Columbia1211$65.20
30Reno, Nevada00$58.65
31Fort Collins, Colorado00$58.65
31Fresno, California00$58.65
33Jackson, Mississippi00$58.65
34Toledo, Ohio00$58.65
35Lincoln, Nebraska00$58.65
36Cleveland, Ohio613$51.19
37Huntsville, Alabama00$58.65
38Houston, Texas106$63.85
39Lafayette, Louisiana00$58.65
40Ann Arbor, Michigan00$58.65
40Springfield, Missouri00$58.65
42Fort Wayne, Indiana00$58.65
42Tallahassee, Florida00$58.65
44Wichita, Kansas00$58.65
45Asheville, North Carolina00$58.65
46Bakersfield, California00$58.65
47Eugene, Oregon00$58.65
48St. Louis, Missouri413$56.44
49Baltimore, Maryland49$61.99
50Gainesville, Florida00$58.65
51Miami, Florida67$58.03
52Charlottesville, Virginia00$58.65
53Peoria, Illinois00$58.65
54San Francisco, California48$67.64
55Kansas City, Missouri75$53.26
56Denver, Colorado86$52.97
57Columbia, Missouri00$58.65
58Montgomery, Alabama00$58.65
59Spartanburg, South Carolina00$58.65
60Wilmington, North Carolina00$58.65
60Mobile, Alabama00$58.65
62Seattle, Washington83$57.79
63Cincinnati, Ohio45$52.73
64Lynchburg, Virginia00$58.65
65Oakland, California68$57.75
66Atlanta, Georgia91$49.24
67Corpus Christi, Texas00$58.65
68Lubbock, Texas00$58.65
69Savannah, Georgia00$58.65
70Missoula, Montana00$58.65
71Milwaukee, Wisconsin42$56.09
72San Antonio, Texas35$58.41
73Greeley, Colorado00$58.65
74Charlotte, North Carolina40$56.68
75Nashville, Tennessee40$58.72
76San Diego, California41$56.51
77Portland, Oregon52$58.04
78State College, Pennsylvania00$58.65
79Tampa, Florida62$46.25
80Manhattan, Kansas60$58.65
81Lawrence, Kansas00$58.65
82Waco, Texas00$58.65
83Indianapolis, Indiana51$58.65
84New Orleans, Louisiana41$52.00
85Orlando, Florida60$54.54
86Buffalo, New York52$50.15
87Dover, Delaware00$58.65
88Greenville, North Carolina00$58.65
89Macon, Georgia00$58.65
90Tuscaloosa, Alabama00$58.65
91San Jose, California42$56.85
92Ames, Iowa00$58.65
92Iowa City, Iowa00$58.65
92Bowling Green, Kentucky00$58.65
95Monroe, Louisiana00$58.65
96Bloomington, Indiana00$58.65
97Las Cruces, New Mexico00$58.65
98Ithaca, New York00$58.65
98Muncie, Indiana00$58.65
98Hattiesburg, Mississippi00$58.65
101Corvallis, Oregon00$58.65
101Jonesboro, Arkansas00$58.65
101Morgantown, West Virginia00$58.65
104Newark, Delaware23$55.10
105Memphis, Tennessee20$52.56
106Lake Charles, Louisiana00$58.65
106Harrisonburg, Virginia00$58.65
108Charleston, South Carolina00$58.65
108Greensboro, North Carolina00$58.65
110Anaheim, California22$54.45
111Jacksonville, Alabama20$51.61
112Sacramento, California20$56.66
113Rochester, Michigan01$58.65
114Newark, New Jersey23$55.10
115Terre Haute, Indiana00$58.65
116Pocatello, Idaho00$58.65
116Johnson City, Tennessee00$58.65
118Providence, Rhode Island01$58.65
118Norfolk, Virginia00$58.65
120Hammond, Louisiana00$58.65
120Flagstaff, Arizona00$58.65
122Durham, North Carolina00$58.65
122Omaha, Nebraska00$58.65
122Lexington, Kentucky00$58.65
122Boise, Idaho00$58.65
122Chattanooga, Tennessee00$58.65
122Louisville, Kentucky00$58.65
122Austin, Texas00$58.65
122Burlington, Vermont00$58.65
130Arlington, Texas00$58.65
131Stockton, California00$58.65
131Binghamton, NY00$58.65
131Ogden, Utah00$58.65
131Princeton, New Jersey00$58.65
131Richmond, Kentucky00$58.65
131Spokane, Washington00$58.65
131Auburn, Alabama00$58.65
131Bowling Green, Ohio00$58.65
131Birmingham, Alabama00$58.65
131Chapel Hill, North Carolina00$58.65
131College Park, Maryland00$58.65
131East Lansing, Michigan00$58.65
131Tempe, Arizona00$58.65
131Boone, North Carolina00$58.65
131Fayetteville, Arkansas00$58.65
131Charleston, Illinois00$58.65
147Santa Clara, California00$58.65
148Foxborough, Massachusetts20$58.65
149Glendale, Arizona20$58.65
150Carson, California20$58.65
151Harrison, New Jersey20$58.65
152St. Paul, Missouri40$58.65
153Annapolis, Maryland00$58.65
154Hempstead, New York00$58.65
155Sunrise, Florida20$51.52
156Fairfield, Connecticut00$58.65
156Clinton, South Carolina00$58.65
156Durham, New Hampshire00$58.65
156Fort Myers, Florida00$58.65
156Lexington, Virginia00$58.65
156Orem, Utah00$58.65
156Staten Island, New York00$58.65
156South Bend, Indiana00$58.65
156Des Moines, Iowa00$58.65
156Greenville, South Carolina00$58.65
156Albany, New York00$58.65
156Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts00$58.65
156Clemson, South Carolina00$58.65
156College Station, Texas00$58.65
156DeKalb, Illinois00$58.65
156Denton, Texas00$58.65
156Evanston, Illinois00$58.65
156Fort Worth, Texas00$58.65
156Grambling, Louisiana00$58.65
156Kalamazoo, Michigan00$58.65
156Kent, Ohio00$58.65
156Laramie, Wyoming00$58.65
156Lorman, Mississippi00$58.65
156Mount Pleasant, Michigan00$58.65
156Norman, Oklahoma00$58.65
156Orangeburg, South Carolina00$58.65
156Oxford, Mississippi00$58.65
156Oxford, Ohio00$58.65
156Paradise, Nevada00$58.65
156Provo, Utah00$58.65
156Pullman, Washington00$58.65
156Ruston, Louisiana00$58.65
156San Marcos, Texas00$58.65
156Starkville, Mississippi00$58.65
156Stillwater, Oklahoma00$58.65
156Troy, Alabama00$58.65
156University Park, Texas00$58.65
156West Lafayette, Indiana00$58.65
156West Point, New York00$58.65
156Ypsilanti, Michigan00$58.65
156Athens, Ohio00$58.65
156Blacksburg, Virginia00$58.65
156Grand Forks, North Dakota00$58.65
156Logan, Utah00$58.65
156Berkeley, California00$58.65
156Athens, Georgia00$58.65
156Huntington, West Virginia00$58.65
156Beaumont, Texas00$58.65
156Youngstown, Ohio00$58.65
156Little Rock, Arkansas00$58.65
156New Haven, Connecticut00$58.65
156Worcester, Massachusetts00$58.65
156Honolulu, Hawaii00$58.65
156Boca Raton, Florida00$58.65
210Pine Bluff, Arkansas00$58.65

The Top (and Bottom) Five Cities for...

Here a few of our data points explained in more detail.

Women's Teams

Sports are increasingly recognized as co-ed. In 1972, Congress passed Title IX, which among other things prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender at educational institutions who receive federal funds. One of the consequences of this law was female athletes becoming entitled to the same benefits of athletic participation as men, including equipment, uniforms, access to facilities, quality coaches, school support and more. It has taken many years for female sports and female athletes to become recognized as equal to their male counterparts, but we are still a ways away from an equal number of professional opportunities, or an equal number of teams to go and support. Below we have broken out the best and worst cities in terms of number of women’s professional teams.

On the right: There were multiple cities with none, so we have shown the largest cities with no professional women’s teams.

RankCityStateTeams
1.ChicagoIL3
2.New YorkNY2
2.WashingtonDC2
2.HoustonTX2
2.BostonMA2
RankCityStateTeams
210.PhiladelphiaPA0
209.MiamiFL0
208.San FranciscoCA0
207.DetroitMI0
206.San DiegoCA0

Championships

Winning is all that counts for some fans. Below we show the cities that have won the most major championships in their history and their number of recent wins.

On the right: There are plenty of cities with no major championship wins in their history — too many to count here. We have broken out the biggest cities with no major championship victories.

RankCityStateTitlesTitles since 2000
1.New YorkNY544
2.BostonMA368
3.ChicagoIL294
4.Los AngelesCA2515
5.DetroitMI222
RankCityStateTitles
1.CharlotteNC0
2.OrlandoFL0
3.SacramentoCA0
4.AustinTX0
5.NashvilleTN0

Ticket Price

Winning and big teams aren’t everything though. If you can’t afford to watch your local team, it can be hard to cheer for them. Here we show the most and least expensive cities to watch a game in person, using the average major league ticket price per city.

It is unsurprising that the biggest cities have the most numerous and the most successful teams, but that they are also the most expensive to watch and the hardest to actively participate with. An analysis of ticket price versus team success does show that the more successful teams are, in general, more expensive to watch, with a few exceptions: Detroit and Cleveland have a solid history of winning, but their ticket prices are significantly below the average.

RankCityState% Difference to Average Ticket Cost
1.TampaFL-21.08%
2.DetroitMI-19.54%

3.
AtlantaGA-15.99%
4.BuffaloNY-14.43%
5.ClevelandOH-12.65%
RankCityState% Difference to Average Ticket Cost
210.New YorkNY+63.04%
209.BostonMA+41.62%
208.ChicagoIL+36.89%
207.Los AngelesCA+22.54%
206.San FranciscoCA+15.41%

Experts' Take

To vary our coverage of the best cities for sports enthusiasts, we put the data aside and sought out expert for answers to questions of concern.

Robert Herbst

Robert has been actively involved in organized sports his entire life and is a world champion and hall of fame powerlifter. He works in professional sports and was recently a Doping Control Chaperone for the Rio Olympics.

  • What makes a great city for sports fans?

    A city is great for sports fans if there is a diverse selection of teams which spans the seasons such as football, hockey, basketball, and baseball and/or has a major university nearby which has high level teams in more than one sport. There should also be convenient mass transit or driving with parking to the events and attractive and modern venues.

  • Does success of a local team impact the city as a whole, and how?

    The success of a local team impacts the city as a whole economically and spiritually. When a team does well, it generates more business for local merchants such as bars and restaurants and memorabilia vendors because fans come out to watch the games in festive settings. If the team goes into the playoffs, the season is extended so there are more games and more opportunities for enthusiastic fans to spend money. Also, if a team does well, everyone feels uplifted. People identify with the team and get excited about a big game or series. Everyone feels good after a win and miserable after a loss. We have all seen the outpouring of joy at a championship parade and a city's identity as being a good place to live can be tied to the success of its teams.

  • What should savvy sports fans be wary of in their city?

    The savvy sports fan should be wary of the team owner who tries to squeeze the local taxpayers for financing for expensive venues which mostly benefit the owner and wealthy individuals or corporations which are the only ones who can afford the luxury seats.

  • How can a community or city develop a local sports culture?

    A city can develop a sports culture by having teams which reflect the community and to which the fans can relate. It is not necessarily based upon winning. Chicago fans almost revel in the fact that their lovable Cubs have not won a World Series in more than 100 years, while in New York, working class Mets fans bemoan their "same old Mets". On the other hand, the more affluent sections of New York follow the elite tradition of the Yankees and expect championships. The culture can be fostered by having the athletes be seen as being approachable by the average fan. For all his wealth and skill, Derek Jeter was humble and relatable and he became part of New York City.

Jesse Ghiorzi


Ghiorzi is the director for a sports branding and content team and has an extensive background in sports PR and broadcasting.

  • What makes a great city for sports fans?

    A great sports city has to have the total package. Today, it's more than just having a good team. You want great facilities, a lively neighborhood around the arena(s) that's fun before and after the games and a deeply rooted sports culture. The events your city brings in also matter - like a major amateur event, an all-star game, a bowl game, a tournament or big exhibition. It also helps if there's interest in sports in not just the spectator sense, but the participatory level as well, like active rec leagues, popular 5k races and more.

  • Does success of a local team impact the city as a whole, and how?

    The local team's success plays a big role for the city. If a team does well or goes far in the playoffs, that often means greater attendance and more revenue for the businesses around the arena and taxes for the city. Additionally, successful teams often get featured in national broadcasts and stories, so your city is mentioned and shown more often in the media. Local pride gets a boost as well as people feel more connected to and represented by the players who wear their city's name on the front of their jerseys.

  • What should savvy sports fans be wary of in their city?

    Great sports towns have one thing in common - passion. That helps drive year-round interest and makes it a fun place to visit for out-of-town fans. However, passion can have an ugly side and you don't want your town to get a rep for hostile local fans or dangerous environments for opposing fans. At the end of the day, it's just sports and you can be passionate about your team while respecting the road team and its fans.

  • How can a community or city develop a local sports culture?

    Developing a local sports culture starts at the youth level. When you get kids involved in sports at an early age, not only do you build athletes, you also build fans of the sports they're playing. Plus, parents, grandparents and families all take interest in their games. I coached little league baseball in a Dallas suburb and the facilities and family support there were incredible. Dallas has a great sports culture from the youth level up to the major leagues.

Shawn Zanotti

Shawn is works in professional sports as a strategist and publicist, is CEO of Exact and is the author of several books on branding and PR.

  • What makes a great city for sports fans?

    I think it all comes down to the "vibe" of the city. I like sports cities which are full of multi generations of culture. Culture of the city... culture related to sports...culture related to the diversity in age and ethnicity. It's about the cities and people who live there or grew up there. It is when you are in a city and can literally "feel" the love for the sports team in the good times and bad, highs and lows—when the city rides behind the sports team with a tie that’s instilled within each person, with no thought behind, it just "is"what it is... thats a great city for a sports fan.

  • Does success of a local team impact the city as a whole, and how?

    Oh my goodness, absolutely! If the local team wins then it's a trickle down effect for business within the entire city. Small business owners thrive, as the city would then become more of a tourist attraction. Homeowners thrive as more tourist travel to the city for games, events, etc. It is great to have the commodity for the young people in the city too. It is great for jobs, for revenue, for our young people in each city.

  • What should savvy sports fans be wary of in their city?

    I think it is important to remember it is all about where you are from...your environment which generally pulls sports fans to favor one team over another. If you are an Alabama football fan, there's no better place to live than Tuscaloosa. If you are a Red Sox fan, there is no worst place to live than New York City. In a city like Chicago, where there are five professional teams, it is about the actual location you reside in within the city. You either support the Cubs or the White Sox, not both.There are more Cubs fans on the North Side and White Sox fans south of State and Madison. It is important to remember at the end of the day—-it's important to ask yourself, "why are you really a fan?”

  • How can a community or city develop a local sports culture?

    The most important component, as with anything, would be the mindset change. The mindset of those who live in the community/city must change to jump behind the local sports teams. The "influence" would come from heavy PR around the team—specialized events, community relations on the team and team members, intense background and social identification with players, etc.

David Michaels

David works in sports investment and as a basketball game picker; he is familiar with a multitude of sports markets across the country.

  • What makes a great city for sports fans?

    Cities that are considered great for sports fans will typically have a central area or place for fans to congregate before, during, and after games. This can be simply due to the close proximity of the cities sports facilities, such as Philadelphia. Or a result of a thriving entertainment district that serves as a place of congregation for fans. Examples are the French Quarter in New Orleans, downtown Indianapolis, and the Riverwalk in San Antonio. Facilities located in "special" neighborhoods with adequate public transportation such as Wrigley Field in Chicago and Fenway Park in Boston are obviously wonderful for fans of any team.

  • Does success of a local team impact the city as a whole, and how?

    A team's success can and does have major impact on the city as a whole. The collective psyche of the community ebbs and flows with its team’s fortunes. It is simply more fun to live in a city when its ball club is winning. There have been numerous studies that positively correlate workplace production and environment to a team's success. The economic impact that "winning" brings is tangible and proven every year across the different sports. Local businesses affiliated with or even indirectly related to (such as a sports bar) the team will typically see increased revenue. Increased tourism (affecting hotels and restaurants) is almost always a result of winning.

    The exposure that a winning team can bring to a city cannot be understated. The team will make more appearances during "prime time" television slots, and will have more games televised nationally in general. This is always a key component and a desired result of why cities compete so fiercely to host a Super Bowl. More exposure of any given city equates to more people being aware of what the city has to offer, which provides a reason to visit. Not to mention businesses that are looking for a potential city to expand in or relocate to.

  • What should savvy sports fans be wary of in their city?

    Savvy sports fans should beware of team ownership that does not have the best interests of the team and the community in mind. Every fan has an opinion on the draft, free agency, and the hiring and firing of coaches. But some owners have made clear through their actions (or lack thereof), that they are not operating with the best interest of their players, fans, and community as a whole in mind.

  • How can a community or city develop a local sports culture?

    The only shortcut to developing a sports culture is consistently winning, which as we know is a rough proposition. Culture typically develops over generations, as local and team traditions get passed down for parent to child. The team can certainly do its part by remaining active in the community from an outreach and visibility perspective. Having a unique or special venue helps in the sense that the fans will have more reason to attend and remain engaged regardless of the team's fortunes.

Methodology

We analyzed 306 cities across the U.S. using 25 factors from 13 different sources. These 306 cities encompassed any with at least one NCAA school or minor league team. However, many of the cities with an NCAA school had no other sporting characteristics, and due to insufficient data, were excluded from the rest of the analysis. We imposed the restriction of a minimum of one team and one sport-related business or stadium, which left us with 210 cities with sufficient data to analyze. (This means that 96 cities in the U.S. have an NCAA or minor league team but do not have any other sporting facilities or businesses).

Being a sports fan can be tricky, and can depend hugely on your budget, the type of sports you enjoy, your gender and many other factors. Those cities that rank best and worst in our overall analysis are those that show a balance of possibilities for their fans. To determine this balance, the factors studied were broadly grouped into three equally weighted categories: Teams, Fan Experience and Participation.

The Teams category is fairly simple: We counted the number of teams available to watch in a city, including men’s professional, women’s professional, minor league (baseball, basketball, football, soccer and hockey) or NCAA.

The Fan Experience category looks at the more subjective aspects of sport fandom, from the cost of attending a game (including ticket price and the average cost of a beer); the number of championships won in that city (as having a winning franchise has shown to significantly increase fan satisfaction); attendance figures; the number of stadiums in the city; and the number of TV channels devoted specifically to covering local sports. All of these factors contribute to a positive environment for sports fans.

Lastly, the Participation category looks at the ability for a sports fan to get involved: the number of sporting related businesses locally, from sports instruction to sports centers to spectator sports businesses. Many sportsmen do not just watch the games, they play for fun too, so we deemed this category as important as the rest.

All factors used in the analysis were weighted equally, as the specifics of which matters more to each sports fan can be subjective and vary with income, transport options and physical ability.

There were several factors we would have liked to include in the analysis but couldn’t. The number of sports bars in each city would be an interesting addition to the fan experience and for many fans is the primary way they watch their teams, but comprehensive and reliable data proved to be elusive.

Secondly, the amount of public money spent on arenas and public sporting facilities is an interesting factor, but considered too subjective to include here. A large dollar amount of public funds used towards sports can indicate a dedicated fan base in a specific city, but many experts argue that using public funds for this purpose has questionable or even negative repercussions to the city as a whole. Comprehensive data is not available, and a city-by-city analysis of amount of public spending and economic impact on the city would be required to determine the effect.

Lastly, seasonal city-run facilities such as outdoor rinks could be a factor in a local’s enjoyment of sport in their city, but no comprehensive data source for this information was available.

There are also several data points that we considered using but chose not to. Public transit data has relevance for those cities with their main stadiums in the center, and ease of access can be an important factor. In these cities, we found that parking costs at stadiums were much higher than average. But in smaller cities or where teams were located outside of the center, public transit becomes less available and parking much much cheaper. The benefit of transit versus parking seems to balance out, and in the end becomes a purely subjective issue depending on whether a fan can or indeed wants to drive to their home stadiums, are planning to drink at the game, are traveling in a group or are planning to tailgate.

The number of hall of famers on a team can significantly add to the enjoyment of a fan watching that team. But counting the number of hall of famers per city is not a simple task. Hall of famers can include players, coaching staff and contributors. There are hall of fames for multiple sports, many of which are not particularly followed. And even a well-recognized hall of famer plays in multiple cities over their career, for varying amounts of time. Determining the length of time a player had to be in a city to deem it a positive for the fan experience, whether to include lesser sports or lesser known positions, and whether to include minor league teams (which all hall of famers had to come through before they were famous) made this factor too complex to determine. The benefit to the fan experience may vary widely with age of the player whilst at the team, length of time at the team, during the ascendency or descendancy of their career, and the sport played.

Below, we break down the statistics we did employ, plus their point of origin.

Teams

1) No. NHL Teams / NHL

2) No. MLB Teams / MLB

3) No. MLS Teams / MLS

4) No. NFL Teams / NFL

5) No. NBA Teams / NBA

6 to 9) No. Women's Professional Teams / Various

10) No. NCAA Schools / NCAA

11 to 15) No. Minor League Teams / Various

Fan Experience

16) No. Major Championships / Wikipedia

17) Average Ticket Price / Team Marketing Report

18) Average Cost of a Beer at Game / Team Marketing Report

19) Average Attendance (by highest attendance in city) / Wikipedia

20) No. Regional Sports TV Channels / Wikipedia

21) No. Stadiums / Wikipedia

Participation

22) No. Fitness Clubs and Sports Centers / Census Bureau

23) No. Sports Instruction Businesses / Census Bureau

24) No. Sports Clubs / Census Bureau

25) No. Spectator Sports Businesses / Census Bureau

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